Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

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Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Hyperemesis Gravidarum And Long‐term Mortality: A Population‐based Cohort Study

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Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

All cookies that are not specifically required for the operation of the website and are specifically used to collect user personal data through analytics, advertising, other embedded content are called optional cookies. It is mandatory to obtain user consent before running these cookies on your website. Authors: Julia Roig Navarro (gynecologist), Silvia Ajana Gutierrez, MSc (embryologist) and Cristina Algara Guzman, MSc. (Psychologist).

During the first trimester of pregnancy, nausea and vomiting are common, especially in the early morning hours. However, when this nausea is severe and persistent during pregnancy, it is hyperemesis gravidarum.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Risk Factors Of Prolonged Nausea And Vomiting During Pregnancy

This condition may begin around 6-8 weeks of pregnancy, but usually resolves by the 20th week. Hyperemesis gravidarum can have negative effects on the health of the mother and baby, so it should be treated adequately.

Below is a 9-point index that we expand on in this article.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

When a woman is pregnant, morning sickness and vomiting are common (although they can occur at any time of the day). These symptoms are more common in the first trimester of pregnancy and are usually thought to be due to a rapid increase in human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or estrogen.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Nursing Care Plan & Management

Hyperemesis gravidarum is a complication of this condition, so typical of pregnancy, that it occurs in 0.3% to 3.6% of cases. It is the presence of severe and persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, which leads to avoidance of food intake and weight loss.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Hyperemesis gravidarum can begin to appear as early as 6-8 weeks of pregnancy, with symptoms becoming more pronounced around 12 weeks. However, this condition improves after the 20th week, although it may last longer.

On the other hand, other risk factors such as obesity, existing diabetes, young age and not having children before have been suggested.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

What Is Hyperemesis Gravidarum And What Are Its Symptoms?

As mentioned, the main symptom of hyperemesis gravidarum is severe nausea and vomiting that lasts throughout pregnancy. However, this condition can cause a woman to appear:

In addition, due to the lack of nutrients and vitamins caused by hyperemesis gravidarum, a pregnant woman may develop other serious complications such as anemia and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. On the other hand, damage to the esophagus can also occur from persistent vomiting, which can lead to the appearance of blood in the vomit.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Finally, regarding effects on pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with preterm birth, having a baby smaller than appropriate for its gestational age, and with low birth weight.

Ways To Avoid Hyperemesis Gravidarum

However, it is important to note that persistent vomiting and nausea reduce a woman’s quality of life. A pregnant woman limits her activities and social contacts and may show symptoms of depression and anxiety. For this reason, the support of family, friends and, if necessary, psychological support is necessary. It should be understood that hyperemesis gravidarum is not normal nausea and vomiting.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

The diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum is based on the patient’s symptoms and weight loss. However, certain tests such as urine and blood tests are also performed to assess the woman’s condition and rule out other possible causes of vomiting.

Regarding the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum, initially a woman can try some of the following medications:

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Severe Pregnancy Nausea

However, it is common that this advice is not sufficient and does not relieve nausea and vomiting in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Therefore, it is relatively common for a woman to visit her doctor when she has already lost weight and is showing signs of dehydration.

When a pregnant woman arrives at the hospital, specialists usually instruct the woman to stop eating and give her intravenous fluids.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

In addition, it is necessary to replace electrolytes and administer vitamins and antiemetics (medicines to reduce nausea and vomiting) according to the woman’s needs and requirements. For this reason, the patient needs to stay in the hospital for several days.

Treatments For Pregnancy Sickness And Hyperemesis Gravidarum

After this is done, when the situation is more under control, the pregnant woman can gradually continue to take fluids. If this is tolerated, some foods are introduced in small amounts.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

However, if the woman does not improve, other interventions such as tube feeding can be administered. In addition, in some more extreme cases, experts may also suggest therapeutic termination of pregnancy.The number of vomits does not determine the presence of hyperemesis gravidarum. If in doubt, you should consult a valuation expert.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Hyperemesis Care Map

Hyperemesis gravidarum usually occurs at 6-8 weeks of gestation, which corresponds to the first trimester of pregnancy. However, hyperemesis gravidarum has a duration that includes the second trimester, as it usually begins to subside around the 20th week of pregnancy.

On the other hand, if the onset of vomiting is late in the second trimester, the specialist must carefully rule out other possible causes before diagnosing hyperemesis gravidarum.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Yes, hyperemesis gravidarum is characterized by severe and persistent nausea and vomiting, which affects a woman’s quality of life and performance of daily activities. In addition, weight loss and dehydration can lead to hospitalization of a pregnant woman.

Dysmenorrhea As A Risk Factor For Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Not Although they can occur at any time of the day, so-called morning sickness, they are very common in pregnant women and can occur in 80-90% of pregnancies.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Hyperemesis gravidarum is a rare form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, occurring in 0.3 to 3.6% of cases. However, this is a more difficult condition, as vomiting is persistent and severe and can lead to weight loss and dehydration in the pregnant woman.

In this article, molar pregnancy is mentioned as a possible risk factor for hyperemesis gravidarum. If you want to read more about this topic, we recommend visiting the following link: Molar pregnancy or hydatidiform mole: types, symptoms and diagnosis.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Solved The Nurse Is Caring For A Client Who Has Hyperemesis

On the other hand, we mentioned that hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with premature birth. For more information, you can read this article: Causes of Premature Labor – Risks, Causes and Symptoms

Bollig RC, Barton SJ, Saccone G, Kelly AJ, Edwards SJ, Bergella V. Interventions for the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Cochrane Database System Rev. 2016 May 11;(5):CD010607. (see)

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

De Haro K, Toledo K, Fonseca I, Arenas D, Arenas H, Leonher K. Hyperemesis Gravidica: Management and Complementary Nutrition; Reporte de caso i revision de literatura [Hyperemesis gravidarum: management and nutritional implications; Case report and literature review]. Nutr Hosp. 2014 Oct 3;31(2):988-91. Spanish. (see)

Risk Factors For Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Love SA, Steinweg KE. Review article: Management of hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Emerge Med Australias. 2022 Feb;34(1):9-15. (see)

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Frequently asked user questions: ‘How much vomiting is hyperemesis gravidarum considered?’, ‘Is hyperemesis gravidarum normal in the second trimester?’, ‘Can hyperemesis gravidarum be considered sick leave?’ and ‘Is hyperemesis gravidarum equivalent to morning sickness?’.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Causes And Risk Factors

Dr. Julia Roig graduated in Medicine and General Surgery from the University of Barcelona

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