History Of Indonesian Education

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History Of Indonesian Education – Dragana Borenovic Dilas, WES Credential Checker, Chris Mackey, WES Research Associate, Ying Huang, WES Credential Checker, Stefan Trines, Research Editor,

This education profile describes recent trends in education and student mobility in Indonesia and provides an overview of the Indonesian education system. It replaces the previous version by Nick Clarke.

History Of Indonesian Education

History Of Indonesian Education

With 264 million people (2017, World Bank), Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. It is also the largest archipelago in the world. Its territory includes more than 17,000 islands that stretch 3,181 miles along the equator between the Pacific and Indian oceans.

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About 87 percent of Indonesia’s population is Sunni Muslim, making Indonesia the largest Muslim majority in the world. However, the Southeast Asian country is a diverse, complex and multicultural nation with more than 300 ethnic groups speaking hundreds of different languages. 10 percent of the population identify as Christians and 1.7 percent as Hindus.

History Of Indonesian Education

The three largest ethnic groups in Indonesia are Javanese (40.1 percent), mainly based in Java, the world’s most populous island, home to more than 50 percent of Indonesia’s total population; Sundanese (15.5 percent); and Malay (3.7 percent). Indonesia’s cultural and regional diversity is as great as its number of islands. Places like rural West Timor or Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan) are worlds apart from the posh malls of central Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital of about 10 million people.

Despite these obvious differences, Indonesia appears to have an economic future; It will undoubtedly become a country of global importance in the 21st century

 

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Age. The island nation is currently transitioning from an agricultural economy driven by commodity exports to one based on industrial production and services. Professional services company PricewaterhouseCoopers predicts Indonesia will grow to become the world’s fourth largest economy by 2050. This staggering economic growth is partly driven by demographic trends, which will increase the country’s population to about 321 million. By 2030, it is estimated that 70 percent of the population will be working adults, giving the country a favorable population structure and abundant labor pool. History Of Indonesian Education.

Highlighting Indonesia’s huge economic potential, the country’s middle class is expected to double by 2013-2020. Meanwhile, urbanization is accelerating rapidly, and internet penetration rates have increased since 2013 alone. It has increased by more than 20 percent till 2016. The percentage of people with access to electricity has jumped from 55 percent in 1993. Economic growth rates have recently been relatively low compared to pre-1997 growth rates, reaching 98 percent in 2016. Asian financial crisis, but GDP still grew steadily at more than 5 percent. For the past eight years.

History Of Indonesian Education

However, Indonesia is characterized not only by large regional disparities, but also by the status of a developing country that is difficult to govern and plagued by various socio-economic problems. It ranks 116 out of 189 on the UN Human Development Index. GDP per capita is less than half that of neighboring Malaysia. Twenty-seven million Indonesians still live on less than $0.75 a day. Life expectancy is seven years lower than in Vietnam. History Of Indonesian Education.

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To realize its full economic potential, Indonesia must increase public spending, build infrastructure, close regional development gaps, curb corruption, ensure stable and predictable governance, and raise living standards by investing in health, education, and human capital. Development. As noted by Rodrigo A. Chaves, the World Bank’s Country Director for Indonesia, “The middle class holds the key to unlocking Indonesia’s potential. It is important for the government to support the growth of this group in all areas. This includes support for improving the education level and skills of the population, growth in job creation, and broader access to social security.”

History Of Indonesian Education

Currently, Indonesia strives to provide comprehensive and high-quality education to its citizens. The country has a very low literacy rate compared to other Southeast Asian countries. A World Bank analysis found that 55 percent of Indonesian school leavers are functionally illiterate1, compared to 14 percent in Vietnam and only 20 percent in OECD countries.

Tertiary education levels are also very low: in 2016, the percentage of Indonesians over the age of 25 with at least a bachelor’s degree was the lowest among all members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), at less than 9 percent. With the highest unemployment rate among university-educated Indonesians, there may not be much incentive to pursue higher education. The research out put of Indonesian universities is growing rapidly, but it is still low compared to other emerging economies. History Of Indonesian Education.

History Of Indonesian Education

Indonesia: Chronicle Of A Javanese Court In Yogyakarta (1800 1849). This Illuminated Page In Javanese Script Is From A Chronicle Of A Javanese Court In Yogyakarta. Located In Central Java, Yogyakarta Was One

On the plus side, the average number of people age 25 and older in school doubled in 2016 over eight years since the 1980s. In 2004, the student-teacher ratio in primary education declined from 20 to 16 to 1. And also in 2017, although this ratio is flat or decreases at higher education levels (according to data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics – UIS). 2004-2017 tertiary schools saw a 20% jump in overall gross enrollment (GER). It increased from 28.3 percent to 36.3 percent. 42 percent in Vietnam and 49.3 percent in Malaysia. in Thailand (UIS).

Since the mid-2000s, Indonesia has implemented a number of education reforms, including decentralizing parts of the school system, improving teacher training standards, and significantly increasing spending on education (as part of the national budget). However, state spending on education as a percentage of GDP has stagnated over the past decade, well below recommended levels for emerging economies (3.6% of GDP in 2015). More efforts are needed to address the structural weaknesses of Indonesia’s system and bring it up to the level of other rapidly developing countries in the dynamic ASEAN region.

History Of Indonesian Education

Inflows of students from Indonesia are increasing, but they are still relatively modest. Indonesia ranks 22nd despite being the fourth most populous country in the world

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It sent the largest number of international students worldwide in 2017, accounting for less than 1 percent of the more than 5 million students studying abroad that year. According to UIS data, the number of Indonesian students seeking degrees abroad has increased since 1998. This growth increased by nearly 62 percent in 2016, making Indonesia the third largest recipient of international students among ASEAN member states. Only behind Vietnam (82, 160) and Malaysia (64, 187) in 2017. History Of Indonesian Education.

History Of Indonesian Education

However, Indonesia’s growth rate between 1998 and 2017 lagged behind smaller regional neighbors such as Vietnam. The number of students leaving has increased by nearly 960 percent. Indonesia’s mobility ratio is low, with only a small proportion of the country’s students currently going abroad. While ASEAN’s two biggest sending countries, Vietnam and Malaysia, have mobility rates of 3.56 and 5.14 percent, only 0.57 percent of Indonesian higher education students study abroad, the lowest percentage of all ASEAN member states after the Philippines. This discrepancy is more pronounced in the case of smaller countries such as Singapore and Brunei, with outbound mobility ratios of 12.92 and 30.99 percent, respectively.

Although the current flow of outbound students is small, demographic and socio-economic factors suggest that Indonesia will play an important role in international education in the coming years. In addition to ASEAN’s highest student-age population, Indonesia also has the world’s third-highest population of under-25s: in 2017, over 117 million, followed by India (616, 550, 830). ) and China (417, 665, 920).2 We estimate that more than 40 percent of Indonesia’s population is under the age of 25, and about 27 percent is under the age of 15; The average age is about  30.5 years. This large university age population means that Indonesia has a large number of international students.

History Of Indonesian Education

History Of Indonesian Education

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This is particularly relevant given the expected growth in disposable income in Indonesia. The McKinsey Global Institute 2012 predicts that Indonesia’s “consumer class” 3 will “grow more strongly than any economy in the world except China and India” by 2030, tripling the number of people from 45 million. Demand for higher education will increase by up to 135 million. This also causes a severe shortage of skilled workers in Indonesia. Despite that, a World Bank policy review found in 2014 that while the number of workers with at least some college education doubled from 2000-2010, only 8 percent of workers still have a college degree, a far cry from the 21 percent the labor market demands. . Despite current unemployment rates among university graduates, this unsatisfied demand is likely to increase enrollment in higher education in the long term. Already in 2006-2016 the total number of students increased by 68 percent from 3.7 million to over 6.1 million.

A complicating factor is the growing demand for quality higher history of Indonesian education

History Of Indonesian Education

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