History Of Education In Indonesia


History Of Education In Indonesia – Dragana Burinović-Delas, WES Credential Examiner, Chris McKee, WES Research Associate, Ying Huang, WES Credential Examiner, and Stefan Trenz, Research Editor;

This Education Profile describes recent trends in Indonesian education and student mobility and provides an overview of the structure of Indonesia’s education system. Nick Clark replaces the previous version.

History Of Education In Indonesia

History Of Education In Indonesia

Indonesia, with a population of 264 million (2017, World Bank), is the fourth most populous country in the world. It is also the largest archipelago in the world. Its territory spans more than 18,000 islands stretching 3,181 miles across the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans.

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About 87% of Indonesia’s population are Sunni Muslims, and Indonesia has the largest Muslim majority in the world. But the South Asian nation is at the same time a diverse, complex and multicultural nation with more than 300 ethnic groups speaking 100 different languages. About 10% of people identify as Christians and about 1.7% as Hindus. History Of Education In Indonesia.

History Of Education In Indonesia

The three largest ethnic groups in Indonesia are Javanese (40.1 percent), especially on Java, the world’s most popular island with more than 50 percent of the total Indonesian population; Sindaniya (15.5 percent); and Malaysians (3.7 percent). Indonesia’s cultural and regional diversity is as great as its number of islands. Rural areas like West Timor or Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan) are a far cry from the shopping malls of Batavia, the capital of Indonesia with a population of about 10 million. History Of Education In Indonesia.

Despite these notable differences, Indonesia was seen as having a promising economic future; It should become a region of global importance in the 21st century

History Of Education In Indonesia

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Century The island nation is now transitioning from an agricultural economy driven by exports to one consisting of manufacturing and industrial services. Professional services firm PricewaterhouseCoopers expects Indonesia to grow into the world’s fourth-largest economy by 2050. This remarkable economic growth depends in part on demographic trends, which will rise to 321 million people. It is estimated that 70% of the adult population will be working by 2030, a circumstance that will provide the nation with a more comfortable demographic structure and a more comfortable workload. History Of Education In Indonesia

Given Indonesia’s enormous economic potential, the country’s middle class is expected to double between 2013 and 2020. At the same time, urbanization is accelerating rapidly, and internet penetration rates increased by more than 20% between 2013 and 2016 alone. The proportion of people with access to electricity jumped from 55% in 1993 to 98% in 2016. Recent economic growth has been relatively low compared to growth before the 1997 Asian financial crisis, but GDP has grown more steadily. 5 percent at most during the past eight years.

History Of Education In Indonesia

However, Indonesia is not only characterized by deep regional disparities, but also by its status as a developing country that is difficult to govern and remains plagued by various social and economic problems. India ranks 116 out of 189 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index, and its per capita GDP is less than half that of neighboring Malaysia. Twenty-seven million Indonesians live on less than US$0.75 a day. Life expectancy is seven years lower than in Vietnam.

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For Indonesia to live up to its full economic potential, it needs to increase public spending, strengthen its infrastructure, close regional development gaps, reduce corruption, provide stable and predictable government, and invest in living standards, health care, education, and human capital. Development, as noted by the Director of the World Bank in Indonesia, Rodrigo A. Chavez, “The middle class is the key to unleashing Indonesia’s potential. It is important for the government to nurture the growth of this group in all sectors. This includes supporting the improvement of the national economy.” Educational conditions and skills of the population and promoting growth that creates employment opportunities and significant access to social protection…”

History Of Education In Indonesia

As of now, Indonesia strives to provide comprehensive and high-quality education to its citizens. The country has much lower literacy levels than other South Asian countries. Analysis by the World Bank shows that 55 percent of Indonesians who complete school are functionally illiterate1 compared to only 14 percent in Vietnam and 20 percent in the United Nations member state for Economic Cooperation and Development.

History Of Education In Indonesia attainment in higher education is also very low: the proportion of Indonesians over the age of 25 who had at least a bachelor’s degree in 2016 was less than 9%, the lowest among all member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). . There may not be much incentive to obtain a university degree, as unemployment rates are high among university-educated Indonesians. The research output of Indonesian universities is growing rapidly, but is still low compared to other emerging economies.

History Of Education In Indonesia

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For the most part, the average number of years of schooling among the over-25 population has doubled from the 1980s to eight years in 2016. The student-teacher ratio fell from 20 to 1 to 16 to 1 in primary education between 2004 and 2017, Although this percentage remained constant except at higher education levels (according to data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics – UIS). Gross enrollment ratio in higher education jumped by 20% between 2004 and 2017, although it remains high. It now stands at 36.3 percent, with 28.3 percent in Vietnam, 42 percent in Malaysia, and 49.3 percent in Thailand (UIS).

Since the mid-2000s, Indonesia has been reforming a wide range of history of education In Indonesia, decentralizing parts of its school system, increasing teaching standards in education, and increasing spending on education (as the national economic division). However, public education as a share of GDP has remained stagnant over the past decade and remains well below recommended levels in emerging economies (at 3.6% of GDP in 2015). It will take more work to overcome the structural weaknesses of the Indonesian system and meet the standards of other fast-growing countries in the dynamic ASEAN region.

History Of Education In Indonesia

Outbound traffic from Indonesia is increasing, but still enjoys relatively modest flows. Despite being the fourth most populous country, Indonesia is only ranked 22nd

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The world’s largest sender of international students in 2017, making up less than 1 percent of the more than 5 million students studying abroad that year. According to data from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, the number of Indonesian students enrolled in overseas studies has increased by approximately 62% since 1998, reaching 47,317 in 2016. This growth has made Indonesia the third largest sender of international students among member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ). 2017, behind only Vietnam (82nd, 160th) and the world (64th, 187th). History Of Education In Indonesia.

History Of Education In Indonesia

However, Indonesia’s growth is dwarfed by growth in smaller regional neighbors such as Vietnam, where almost 960% more foreign students worked between 1998 and 2017. Indonesia’s outward mobility rate is small – only a small portion of the country’s  students now go abroad. While Vietnam and Malaysia, the two largest sending countries in ASEAN, have mobility rates of 3.56 and 5.14 percent, only 0.57 percent of Indonesia’s higher education students study abroad, the second lowest percentage among all ASEAN member states after The Philippines. This discrepancy is most evident in smaller countries such as Singapore and Brunei, which have high air mobility ratios of 12.92 and 30.99 percent, respectively. History Of Education In Indonesia.

Although student flows are extraordinary, there are currently a few factors, both demographic and economic, that suggest Indonesia will play a greater role in international education in the coming years. Not only does Indonesia have the largest population in ASEAN, it also has the third-largest population under the age of 25 in the entire world: more than 117 million in 2017, behind only India (616, 550, 830) and China (417, 665, 920). 2 More than 40 percent of Indonesia’s population is under 25 years of age, and about 27 percent is under 15 years of age; The average age is about 30.5 years. This large university-age population means that Indonesia has a potentially large pool of international students.

History Of Education In Indonesia

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This is especially due to the expected rise in income in Indonesia. The McKinsey Global Institute predicted in 2012 that Indonesia would be a “tertiary consumer” that would “dominate every economy in the world except China and India,” and its population would triple from 45 million to 135 million by 2030. Demand for higher education would. It is also motivated by the fact that the work experience in Indonesia is intense. A 2014 World Bank policy brief concluded that although the number of workers with at least a college education doubled between 2000 and 2010, only 8% of workers have a college degree, far below the 21% required by the labor market. . This null condition usually leads to increases in higher education enrollment rates in the long run, despite existing unemployment, among college graduates. Indeed, between 2006 and 2016, the total number rose by 68%, from about 3.7 million to more than 6.1 million.

The multiplier factor is the growing demand for quality higher History Of Education In Indonesia

History Of Education In Indonesia

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